AKTIFITAS EKONOMI GLOBAL KUNO DI ACEH PADA ABAD KE 13 HINGGA 15 MASEHI: SEBUAH STUDI ARKEOLOGI

Amir Husni(1), Husaini Ibrahim(2), Said Achmad Kabiru Rafiie(3), Mokhtar Saidin(4),


(1) Center for Global Archaeological Research -Universiti Sains Malaysia
(2) Universitas Syiah Kuala-Banda Aceh
(3) Universitas Teuku Umar-Aceh
(4) Center for Global Archaeological Research -Universiti Sains Malaysia
Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kegiatan ekonomi global kuno di Aceh mulai tahun 1300an sampai 1500an Masehi melalui pendekatan arkeologi. Penelitian yang dijalankan melalui analisis benda tinggalan budaya di situs Lamreh, Aceh Besar khususnya keramik dagangan. Umumnya, pecahan keramik yang ditemukan berasal dari China, Thailand, Vietnam dan Myanmar. Hasil pertanggalan relatif menunjukkan bahwa keramik tersebut diimpor mulai abad ke-13 sampai 15 Masehi. Analisis morfologi menunjukkan bahwa jenis keramik China yang seladon, Qingbai dan porselin biru-putih. Sementara keramik dari Asia Tenggara adalah jenis Sangkhalok-Thailand, Annam-Vietnam dan Kendi Martaban dari Burma. Umumnya keramik-keramik tersebut adalah barang keperluan rumah tangga seperti mangkuk, piring, teko dan kendi dengan bentuk dan ukuran yang bervariasi. Temuan pecahan keramik dalam jumlah yang signifikan di situs Lamreh membuktikan bahwa kawasan ini adalah pusat perdagangan maritim di kawasan Selat Melaka mulai abad ke-13 hingga 15 Masehi. Temuan ini juga berkaitan dengan keberadaan Kerajaan Lamuri sebagai pengontrol kegiatan ekonomi di Aceh sebelum abad ke-16 Masehi. Oleh itu, keramik-keramik di situs Lamreh adalah bukti nyata tentang sebuah aktifitas ekonomi global di Aceh yang telah berlangsung sejak seribu tahun terakhir.  

Kata Kunci: Ekonomi Global, Keramik Kuno, Lamuri, Arkeologi.

Keywords


Ekonomi Global;Keramik Kuno; Lamuri, Arkeologi

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